Hair is a protein filament that grows follicles found in the dermis of the skin. It is an important component of body image. Humans have about 5 million hair follicles at birth.No follicles are formed after birth, but their size changes under the influence of hormones. The average scalp has more than 100,000 hair. The growth phase of scalp hair ranges from 2-6 years. Scalp hair grows 0.3 to 0.4mm/day, or approximately 6 inches a year. Excessive hair fall occurs when a person sheds more than 100 hairs/day. This type of hair loss is called Telogen Effluvium.
Other types of hair loss are:
While the patterns of baldness for men and women differ, they both have a common genetic cause. With male pattern baldness, hair loss typically occurs on the top and front of the head. With female pattern baldness, thinning occurs on the top and crown of the head. This thinning in women often starts as a widening of the centre hair part that leaves the front hairline unaffected.
Female pattern baldness also called androgenetic alopecia, is hair loss that affects women. It’s similar to male pattern baldness, except that women can lose their hair in a different pattern than men. Hair loss in women is normal, especially as you age. Up to two-thirds of women experience hair loss after menopause. Less than half of women will make it past age 65 with a full head of hair. Female pattern baldness is hereditary. It’s more common after menopause, so hormones are likely responsible. If you notice that you’re losing hair, see your doctor or a dermatologist. They will be able to determine if you’re experiencing female pattern baldness or another type of hair loss. The sooner you get treated, the faster you’ll be able to stop the loss — and possibly even regrow hair.
In female pattern baldness, the hair’s growing phase slows down.
It also takes longer for new hair to begin growing. Hair follicles shrink, leading the hair that does grow to be thinner and finer. This can result in hair that easily breaks. It’s normal for women to lose 50 to 100 hairs each day, but those with female pattern baldness can lose many more. Women lose hair from all over their head, starting at their part line. Hair at the temples may also recede. Woman are less likely to go completely bald, but you may have a lot of thinning throughout your hair. Doctors divide female pattern baldness into three types:
- Type I is a small amount of thinning that starts around your part.
- Type II involves widening of the part and increased thinning around it.
- Type III is thinning throughout, with a see-through area at the top of your scalp.
If you’ve noticed thinning hair on your scalp, see your doctor or a dermatologist. Your doctor will examine your scalp to see the pattern of hair loss. Testing generally isn’t needed to diagnose female pattern baldness.
If they suspect another type of hair loss, they may also perform a blood test to check your levels of thyroid hormone, androgens, iron, or other substances that can affect hair growth. few women present with male pattern hair loss because they have excessive levels of androgens as well as genetic predisposition. These women tend also to suffer from acne, irregular menses and excessive facial and body hair. These symptoms are characteristic of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) although the majority of women with PCOS do not experience hair loss. Less often, congenital adrenal hyperplasia may be responsible. Females that are losing their hair with age are more likely to present with female pattern hair loss, in which hormone tests are normal.
Minoxidil is the only drug approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat female pattern baldness. It’s available in 2% or 5% formulas. If possible, opt for the 5% formula.
Finasteride is FDA-approved to treat hair loss in men. Spironolactone blocks androgen production, and it may help regrow hair in women who have high testosterone levels.
Hair loss resulting in thinning is known as alopecia. When it is related to hormones (androgens) and genetics, it is known as androgenetic alopecia. When androgenetic alopecia denudes an area of the scalp it is called baldness. Male pattern hair loss is characterised by a receding hairline and/or hair loss on the top and front of the head.
Male pattern hair loss is an inherited condition, caused by a genetically determined sensitivity to the effects of dihydrotestosterone, or DHT in some areas of the scalp. DHT is believed to shorten the growth, or anagen, phase of the hair cycle, from a usual duration of 3–6 years to just weeks or months. This occurs together with the miniaturisation of the follicles and progressively produces fewer and finer hairs. The production of DHT is regulated by an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase.
Current treatment options include:
Hair replacement / transplantation
There is some evidence that ketoconazole shampoo may also be of benefit, perhaps because it is effective in seborrhoeic dermatitis and dandruff.
Laser combs and helmets(THERADOME) are FDA-approved to treat hair loss. They use light energy to stimulate hair regrowth. Platelet-rich plasma therapy may also be beneficial. This involves drawing your blood, spinning it down, then injecting your own platelets back into your scalp to stimulate hair growth.